Juglans cinerea  Butternut Tree White Walnut
(JOO-glanz   sin-EER-ee-uh)

Easyliving Native Perennial Wildflowers Native Wild Flower Seed and Potted Plants 
for Home Landscaping and Prairie Restorations john@easywildflowers.com

Sprouting nute of Juglans cinerea Butternut Tree seed picture Butternuts
Juglans cinerea Butternut picture
grow in

Full Sun 
to 
light shade
Height 

40 to 60 feet
Moisture
 average 
Plant Spacing

40 to 60
feet
Lifespan

70 years
Nuts
mature in

October 
Bloom Period

May June
Flower Color
yellow-green

Spread

40 to 60 feet
USDA Hardiness
Zone
3 to 7
medium size tree

photo by cj 

Juglans is the Latin name for walnut, 
Juglans = Jupiter's Nut, from the Latin Jovis (Jupiter) and glans (nut)
cinerea = Ash-colored

  For other Native Wild Flowers visit the Wildflower Seed and Potted Plant Price List 
 to order copy and mail the order form
or 
email questions, comments, and orders to john@easywildflowers.com
We accept payment by check, money order, and through PayPal

Juglans cinerea Butternut Tree Plants are NOT Available       email for seed availability in late fall

Juglans cinerea Butternut Tree
Alternate common names - White Walnut, Demon Walnut, Oilnut

Butternut is called "white walnut" because of its light-colored wood, which has a natural golden luster that becomes satin-like when polished.  The wood is only moderately hard and saws and carves easily.  It has been used for furniture, cabinetry, instrument cases, interior woodwork, including hand-carved wall panels and trim, and church decoration and altars.  It is stocked in specialty lumberyards because little is cut annually.  

Butternuts were often planted close to the house on farmsteads for their use as food.  Kernels were used in baking and cultivars have been selected for nut size and for ease of cracking and extracting kernels. 

 They have been popular in New England for making maple-butternut candy.  Early settlers used the fruit husks and inner bark to make orange or yellow dye and the root bark provided a laxative.

 Walnut family (Juglandaceae).  Small to medium-sized native trees with stiff upright branches and a wide-spreading crown, the young twigs, stems, and leaflets have hairs sticky-oily to the touch; terminal buds 12-18 mm long; bark brownish-gray, thick, shallowly divided into smooth or scaly plates.  Leaves are pinnately compound, the leaflets (7-) 11-17, ovate to lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, ± symmetric, mostly 5-11cm long, with finely toothed margins, terminal leaflet present, the lower surfaces densely covered with stellate hairs.  Flowers are unisexual, female (pistillate) and male (staminate), but on the same tree (the species monoecious), usually not opening simultaneously on any individual tree; male flowers in slender catkins 6-14 cm long, the female flowers in terminal clusters of 6-8 flowers each.  Fruit is an oblong-ovoid nut 4-6(-8) cm long, single or in clusters of 2-5, with a hard, thick, deeply furrowed shell enclosed by a thick husk with a sticky-glandular surface.  The nuts usually remain on the tree until after leaf fall.  The common name refers to the mature nut kernels, which are sweet and oily, like butter. 

Butternut is primarily a species of the northeastern and north-central US and southern Canada from southeastern New Brunswick to Ontario and Quebec; in the US in Minnesota to Missouri and eastward through Tennessee into North Carolina and Virginia, with disjunct outlyers in Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, and Georgia.  It is uncommon throughout most of its range and formally listed as rare in many of the states in which it occurs.  For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

 Butternut is found most frequently in rich woods of coves and stream benches and terraces, on slopes, in the talus of rock ledges, and on other sites with good drainage; at elevations of 0-1000 (-1500) meters.  Young trees may grow in considerable competition, but they are shade-intolerant and mature trees must reach the overstory.  Flowering occurs from April-June and fruiting from September-October. 

 Seed production begins at about 20 years and is optimum from 30-60 years.  Good crops can be expected every 2-3 years, with light crops during intervening years.  Premature seed losses may result from consumption by insects, birds, and rodents, and a lack of butternut trees in the immediate vicinity may limit pollination and fruit formation.  Seeds germinate in the spring after seedfall and a cold period at 20°-30° C. for 90-120 days to break dormancy.  

Stumps of young butternut trees and saplings are capable of sprouting.  The trees are reported to be slow growing and seldom live longer than 75 years. 

 Butternut canker is killing the species over its whole range.  The fungal pathogen (Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) apparently was introduced from outside of North America.  It was first reported from southwestern Wisconsin in 1967 but is believed to have spread from the southeastern US coastal region, where it first appeared about 40-50 years ago.  The Forest Service estimated in 1995 that 77% of the butternuts in the Southeast were dead.  The fungus infects trees through buds, leaf scars, and possibly insect wounds and other openings in the bark, rapidly killing small branches.  Spores produced on branches are spread by rain, resulting in multiple, perennial stem cankers that eventually girdle and kill infected trees – these do not resprout.  The cankered portions should be removed and destroyed and the wounds should be covered with fungicidal paint; leaves that might harbor fungus (brown leaf spot) should be destroyed.  

 A few healthy butternut trees have been found growing among canker-diseased and dying trees and may be resistant.  Black walnut apparently is unaffected.  A research coalition has been formed to locate surviving trees or populations, characterize sites, identify trees with putative resistance, develop screening methodology for disease resistance, study fungal physiology, and preserve germplasm.

 Fire easily top-kills butternut and older trees rarely sprout from the root crown or stump.  A single hot fire or repeated cool fires can effectively eliminate the species in mixed hardwood stands

 There is commonly a zone of no-growth or inhibited growth around walnut trees, because they produce a naphthoquinone (juglone) that selectively inhibits growth of associated plants.  Juglone is concentrated in root tissue and fruit husks, with lesser amounts in the leaves, catkins, buds, and inner bark. 

Please contact us by email with your address and zip code and number of plants needed for shipping charges on potted plants 

Juglans cinerea Butternut Tree Seeds are NOT available at this time

 Juglans cinerea 
Butternut Tree seed

approximate
number of seeds

approximate coverage
in square feet

1 packet -  $--

1 ounce -  $--

1 pound - $---

    Juglans cinerea Butternut Tree

   The map below shows areas where native Juglans cinerea Butternut Trees grow wild but it can be planted
and will grow over a wider area than shown.  USDA plant hardiness zones 3 to 9.

Juglans cinerea 
Butternut Tree

Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
DC
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kentucky
Maine

 

 

Maryland
Michigan
Mississippi
Missouri
New Jersey
New Jampshire
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania

South Carolina
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin


Canada
 (MB, NB, ON, PE, QC)

Use the chart below for shipping charges on NATIVE WILDFLOWER SEEDS,
to order copy and mail the order form
or
email questions, comments and orders to john@easywildflowers.com

Please contact us by email with your zip code and number of plants for shipping charges on Juglans cinerea Butternut Trees potted plants

Juglans cinerea Butternut Trees seeds are Not available at this time
Use the shipping chart below for our other native wildflower seeds

The minimum seed order amount is $10, this can be a combination of different seeds.
  

subtotal for flower seeds 

shipping charge for seeds

seed orders up to  $20.00    =  

 $4.00 shipping

$20.01 - $50.00    =  

 $6.00 shipping

$50.01-$100.00    =  

 $7.50 shipping

over $100.00    =    7.5 % of subtotal

Home

  Flower Pictures   Wildflower Seed and Potted Plant Price list   Order Form   

Easyliving Wildflowers
PO Box  522
Willow Springs,  MO.  65793
USA
Phone 417-469-2611 

We accept payment by check or money order and through PayPal

e-mail questions, comments, and orders to  john@easywildflowers.com

Juglans cinerea Butternut Tree distribution map complements of USDA, NRCS. 2001. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.1
  (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alternate common names
White walnut, demon walnut, oilnut
Uses
Butternut is called "white walnut" because of its light-colored wood, which has a natural golden luster that becomes satin-like when polished. The wood is only moderately hard and saws and carves easily. It has been used for furniture, cabinetry, instrument cases, interior woodwork, including hand-carved wall panels and trim, and church decoration and altars. It is stocked in specialty lumberyards because little is cut annually.
Butternuts were often planted close to the house on farmsteads for their use as food. Kernels were used in baking and cultivars have been selected for nut size and for ease of cracking and extracting kernels.
They have been popular in New England for making maple-butternut candy. Early settlers used the fruit husks and inner bark to make orange or yellow dye and the root bark provided a laxative.
Status
Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.
Description
General: Walnut family (Juglandaceae). Small to medium-sized native trees with stiff upright branches and a wide-spreading crown, the young twigs, stems, and leaflets have hairs sticky-oily to the touch; terminal buds 12-18 mm long; bark brownish-gray, thick, shallowly divided into smooth or scaly plates. Leaves are pinnately compound, the leaflets (7-) 11-17, ovate to lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, ± symmetric, mostly 5-11cm long, with finely toothed margins, terminal leaflet present, the lower surfaces densely covered with stellate hairs. Flowers are unisexual, female (pistillate) and male (staminate), but on the same tree (the species monoecious), usually not opening simultaneously on any individual tree; male flowers in slender catkins 6-14 cm long, the female flowers in terminal clusters of 6-8 flowers each. Fruit is an oblong-ovoid nut 4-6(-8) cm long, single or in clusters of 2-5, with a hard, thick, deeply furrowed shell enclosed by a thick husk with a sticky-glandular surface. The nuts usually remain on the tree until after leaf fall. The common name refers to the mature nut kernels, which are sweet and oily, like butter.
Distribution
Butternut is primarily a species of the northeastern and north-central US and southern Canada from southeastern New Brunswick to Ontario and Quebec; in the US in Minnesota to Missouri and eastward through Tennessee into North Carolina and Virginia, with disjunct outlyers in Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, and Georgia. It is uncommon throughout most of its range and formally listed as rare in many of the states in which it occurs. For current distribution, please consult the Plant
R. Mohlenbrock
USDA, NRCS, Wetland Science Institute
@ PLANTS
Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.
Establishment
Adaptation: Butternut is found most frequently in rich woods of coves and stream benches and terraces, on slopes, in the talus of rock ledges, and on other sites with good drainage; at elevations of 0-1000 (-1500) meters. Young trees may grow in considerable competition, but they are shade-intolerant and mature trees must reach the overstory. Flowering occurs from April-June and fruiting from September-October.
General: Seed production begins at about 20 years and is optimum from 30-60 years. Good crops can be expected every 2-3 years, with light crops during intervening years. Premature seed losses may result from consumption by insects, birds, and rodents, and a lack of butternut trees in the immediate vicinity may limit pollination and fruit formation. Seeds germinate in the spring after seedfall and a cold period at 20°-30° C. for 90-120 days to break dormancy.
Stumps of young butternut trees and saplings are capable of sprouting. The trees are reported to be slow growing and seldom live longer than 75 years.
Management
Butternut canker is killing the species over its whole range. The fungal pathogen (Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) apparently was introduced from outside of North America. It was first reported from southwestern Wisconsin in 1967 but is believed to have spread from the southeastern US coastal region, where it first appeared about 40-50 years ago. The Forest Service estimated in 1995 that 77% of the butternuts in the Southeast were dead. The fungus infects trees through buds, leaf scars, and possibly insect wounds and other openings in the bark, rapidly killing small branches. Spores produced on branches are spread by rain, resulting in multiple, perennial stem cankers that eventually girdle and kill infected trees – these do not resprout. The cankered portions should be removed and destroyed and the wounds should be covered with fungicidal paint; leaves that might harbor fungus (brown leaf spot) should be destroyed.
A few healthy butternut trees have been found growing among canker-diseased and dying trees and may be resistant. Black walnut apparently is unaffected. A research coalition has been formed to locate surviving trees or populations, characterize sites, identify trees with putative resistance, develop screening methodology for disease resistance, study fungal physiology, and preserve germplasm.
Fire easily top-kills butternut and older trees rarely sprout from the root crown or stump. A single hot fire or repeated cool fires can effectively eliminate the species in mixed hardwood stands
There is commonly a zone of no-growth or inhibited growth around walnut trees, because they produce a naphthoquinone (juglone) that selectively inhibits growth of associated plants. Juglone is concentrated in root tissue and fruit husks, with lesser amounts in the leaves, catkins, buds, and inner bark.
Cultivars, Improved and Selected Materials (and area of origin)
Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ‖United States Government.‖ The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading ―Department of Agriculture.‖ These plant materials are readily available from commercial sources.
Two hybrids show strong growth and extreme hardiness and produce nuts similar to the butternut in clusters of 10-15.
Juglans cinerea X J. regia = Juglans X quadrangulata
Juglans cinerea X J. ailantifolia = Juglans X bixbii